Does the framework often utilized by writers in the Southern Frontier tradition.
A list of the most distinctive words of prizewinning novels when compared with bestsellers using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.
Together, these statistics allow us to assess how common a word is in a given collection and also how much more prevalent it is in one collection over another.
Only words that appeared in more than half of all documents and at least 1, times were considered. All words listed have p-values below 0.
The full list is available at https: How to understand these lists? Take for example the word "father" which includes the word "fathers" as well. This word form appears These individual differences by themselves may not feel all that dramatic.
And certainly the effect for less frequent words is considerably smaller "dust," for example, appears only about 10x per novel. And when we begin to look at them in relation to another group of novels, that significance becomes even more pronounced.
According to these lists, the temporal world of prizewinning novels looks more seasonal, but also dichotomous, divided by a strong sense of a before and after, of old and young. The estrangement from what was compels a desire to look back.
Time in bestsellers, on the other hand, appears to be deeply urgent: Things happen immediately, fast, quick, and people are in a hurry or are busy. This is the world of the next. If we look more closely at some of our novels, it is clear that there are numerous ways that prizewinning novels abound in moments of nostalgia.
In addition to the familiar scenes of looking at old family photographs, this retrospective framework infects even the present of her past. In reminder to myself that although it felt like it might there was no way that a two-day trip could last forever, I imagined the different ways I might recount its events even as they occurred.
When my father, for example, shifted in his seat and Helen bumped into my hand on the stick as I drove, when he interrupted our long deliberate silences by saying, "Tell me stories, my sweethearts," I would silently address an invisible, future audience The narrator is remembering how she experienced life ready to be remembered: The question that emerged for us was not so much whether we could find particular instances of nostalgia among prizewinners, but whether nostalgic was a good way to categorize the group overall when compared with bestselling writing.
Is it fair to say that prizewinning novels are significantly more defined by a nostalgic temporal mentality than bestselling writing, or indeed, any other kind of writing? And if so, what are the implications of such a stance?
What does this say about the process of social valuation that helps construct this category or the field of readerly identification that is framed by it? To test this, our first step was to construct a dictionary that we felt represented a nostalgic state drawn from our list of most distinctive words.
We found that prizewinners used these words in aggregate to a significantly greater degree than all other types of writing in our collection, even an additional collection of nineteenth-century realist fiction Fig.
And while the New York Times novels were the closest in frequency to the prizewinners, even in this case there was statistical significance in the differential usage of this vocabulary.
Boxplot of the average nostalgia scores for each of our novel collections. The black horizontal bands represent the median rate of nostalgic vocabulary while the boxes capture the values between the first and third quartiles i.
Here we see that the top three-fourths of prizewinners have more nostalgic vocabulary than the median rate for New York Times novels. It is worth pausing here and asking whether these features, while different, represent a particularly strong signal. To what extent can we say that prizewinning novels cohere around the language and tropes of nostalgia and retrospection?
Perhaps there are other features that are more important to prizewinning novels than this one. We found that prizewinners, taken in aggregate, use these words about 1. In order to better understand the relative strength of this presence, we compared these words to the suite of LIWC dictionaries mentioned above.
Of the forty-six non-grammatical dictionaries contained in LIWC, our nostalgia words, at 1. However, we need to keep in mind that our dictionary is considerably smaller than all of the LIWC dictionaries.
With just 28 word types, for example, our nostalgic vocabulary is almost as present in prizewinning novels as negative emotions are with five hundred word types 1.
At the same time, no other dictionary represented as extreme an increase between prizewinners and bestsellers than ours, other than "colons" and "semi-colons.Ann-Margaret, Bye Bye Birdie ( Courtney Love, The People Vs.
Her spellbinding performance as a naive and nearly-blind factory worker who dreams of Hollywood musicals earned her the. Indeed, the classifier consistently over-predicted New York Times novels to be prizewinners; perhaps it has covert feelings about the unfair nature of the selection process.
Table 2. Pairwise comparisons of our different novel sets using an SVM classifier. Jul 29, · It's been more than a decade since the s ended, yet the Internet can't seem to go a day without a reminder of the neon slap bracelets that may have been banned from your school..
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The Blind Field I am painfully conscious that, although I began with a thesis about the uncanniness of the experience of Hopper's paintings, I have slipped into a catalogue of uncanny motifs ± the surfacing of the death drive, uncanny lifelike dolls, doubles, haunted houses.
to the discussion of the `blind field', but that 51 T.J. Clark, The Painting of Modern Life, particular expression is not used by Bazin. It is London, , pp. ±2. Found objects can also be used as musical instruments.
It is an important part of the musique concrete genre.. Found sounds have been used by acts including Cop Shoot Cop, Radiohead, Four Tet, The Books, and Björk.. Criticism.
The found object in art has been a subject of polarised debate in Britain throughout the s due to the use of it by the Young British Artists.