Plant cellular processes

Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles Subcellular components All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotichave a membrane that envelops the cell, regulates what moves in and out selectively permeableand maintains the electric potential of the cell. Inside the membrane, the cytoplasm takes up most of the cell's volume. All cells except red blood cells which lack a cell nucleus and most organelles to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin possess DNAthe hereditary material of genesand RNAcontaining the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymesthe cell's primary machinery.

Plant cellular processes

Plant Cell Structure Plants are unique among the eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles, because they can manufacture their own food.

Chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color, enables them to use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and carbohydrates, chemicals the cell uses for fuel.

cell process, animal cell organelles, plant cell organelles Practical 1 study sheet- cell growth and reproduction (cell life cycle) Path 1: cellular adaptations, cell injury, and cell death. Cell Biology. Take a journey into the cell and learn about various cell types, cellular anatomy, and cellular processes. Cellular respiration takes place in another organelle called the mitochondria. Here, the energy obtained from the glucose produced in the chloroplast is created and stored for future use by the plant.

Like the fungi, another kingdom of eukaryotes, plant cells have retained the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. The basic plant cell shares a similar construction motif with the Plant cellular processes eukaryote cell, but does not have centrioles, lysosomes, intermediate filaments, cilia, or flagella, as does the animal cell.

Plant cells do, however, have a number of other specialized structures, including a rigid cell wall, central vacuole, plasmodesmata, and chloroplasts.

Although plants and their typical cells are non-motile, some species produce gametes that do exhibit flagella and are, therefore, able to move about. Plants can be broadly categorized into two basic types: Vascular plants are considered to be more advanced than nonvascular plants because they have evolved specialized tissues, namely xylem, which is involved in structural support and water conduction, and phloem, which functions in food conduction.

Consequently, they also possess roots, stems, and leaves, representing a higher form of organization that is characteristically absent in plants lacking vascular tissues. The nonvascular plants, members of the division Bryophyta, are usually no Plant cellular processes than an inch or two in height because they do not have adequate support, which is provided by vascular tissues to other plants, to grow bigger.

They also are more dependent on the environment that surrounds them to maintain appropriate amounts of moisture and, therefore, tend to inhabit damp, shady areas. It is estimated that there are at leastspecies of plants in the world today.

Chloroplast Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule. Anthocyanin gives these pansies their dark purple pigmentation.

They range in size and complexity from small, nonvascular mosses to giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms, growing as tall as feet meters. Only a tiny percentage of those species are directly used by people for food, shelter, fiber, and medicine. Indeed, all living organisms are dependent either directly or indirectly on the energy produced by photosynthesis, and the byproduct of this process, oxygen, is essential to animals.

Plants also reduce the amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, hinder soil erosion, and influence water levels and quality.

Plant cellular processes

Plants exhibit life cycles that involve alternating generations of diploid forms, which contain paired chromosome sets in their cell nuclei, and haploid forms, which only possess a single set. Generally these two forms of a plant are very dissimilar in appearance.

In higher plants, the diploid generation, the members of which are known as sporophytes due to their ability to produce spores, is usually dominant and more recognizable than the haploid gametophyte generation. In Bryophytes, however, the gametophyte form is dominant and physiologically necessary to the sporophyte form.

Animals are required to consume protein in order to obtain nitrogen, but plants are able to utilize inorganic forms of the element and, therefore, do not need an outside source of protein.

Plants do, however, usually require significant amounts of water, which is needed for the photosynthetic process, to maintain cell structure and facilitate growth, and as a means of bringing nutrients to plant cells.

Cell (biology) - Wikipedia

The amount of nutrients needed by plant species varies significantly, but nine elements are generally considered to be necessary in relatively large amounts. Termed macroelements, these nutrients include calcium, carbon, hydrogen, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur.

Seven microelements, which are required by plants in smaller quantities, have also been identified: Thought to have evolved from the green algae, plants have been around since the early Paleozoic era, more than million years ago.

The earliest fossil evidence of land plants dates to the Ordovician Period to million years ago.

Plant cellular processes

By the Carboniferous Period, about million years ago, most of the Earth was covered by forests of primitive vascular plants, such as lycopods scale trees and gymnosperms pine trees, ginkgos. Cell Wall - Like their prokaryotic ancestors, plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane.

It is a far more complex structure, however, and serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism.

Chloroplasts - The most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy. This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts.

Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. It is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

In plants, the endoplasmic reticulum also connects between cells via the plasmodesmata. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export as outside of the cell. Microfilaments - Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin.

These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton. Mitochondria - Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells.Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, Cellular processes.

Prokaryotes divide by binary fission, while eukaryotes divide by mitosis or meiosis. Replication. Cell division involves a single cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells. This leads to. Enzymes within the plant then catalyze the combination of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to create a carbon compound that is called an intermediate.

An intermediate is a compound used to continue a process to create a different compound. In plants, the intermediate is called phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL). PGAL goes on in the process to produce.

Publisher Summary. This chapter focuses on several developmental processes in plants—senescence, aging, programmed cell death, and apoptosis. Senescence and programmed cell death play a very wide variety of roles in the life cycle of plants and other organisms.

cell process, animal cell organelles, plant cell organelles Practical 1 study sheet- cell growth and reproduction (cell life cycle) Path 1: cellular adaptations, cell injury, and cell death.

Plants do, however, usually require significant amounts of water, which is needed for the photosynthetic process, to maintain cell structure and facilitate growth, and as a means of bringing nutrients to plant cells.

1: Explain the structures of plant cells and important cell processes. a. Describe the structures of a typical plant cell and their functions. b.

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Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

Plant physiology - Wikipedia